Silverhorn, Kiowa

"Kiowa Lancing Osage" (1877) detail

Illustrated here is combat with the shaved-headed Pawnee, who harassed the Kiowa on their eastern borders, and against whom the Kiowa mounted many horse-raiding expeditions. While the enemy is identifiable, the individual Kiowa warrior is not. The shield he carries does not match the shield - all highly individual - known to be carried by the warrior noted in the caption. Ledger art created for viewing within the Native community was highly accurate in its representation of people and events. Art made for sale to an outside audience was often much less so, and may represent generic pictures of types of events, rather than an account of an actual encounter. Silverhorn's generalized depiction suggests that this picture was not intended for a Kiowa audience.